読者です 読者をやめる 読者になる 読者になる

HDE BLOG

コードもサーバも、雲の上

31st Monthly Technical Session (MTS) Report

31st Monthly Technical Session (MTS) was held on February 24th. MTS is a knowledge sharing event, in which HDE members present some topics and have QA sessions, both in English.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170310164506j:plain

The moderator of the 31st MTS was Jeffrey-san.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170310165747j:plain

The first topic was ‘Introduction of EBS’ New Feature' by Nagira-san. Attaching additional EBS volumes had always been hard for him, because he had had to stop the EC2 instance that the EBS volume was attached to. Fortunately, AWS provided an update which allows him to to increase volume size, adjust performance, or change the volume type while the volume is in use. In other words, now he doesn’t have to stop any EC2 instance when attaching additional EBS volumes. This makes his work easier and reduces downtime. Nagira-san also explained in detail the new way to attach additional EBS values.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170310165821j:plain

The second topic was an explanation of an HDE service’s mobile UI, by Kevin-san. He began by reintroducing the service itself. Then, he talked about the technology stack, particularly about why he had chosen Riot as the Javascript framework. The reason was because it’s very small, component-based, has simple APIs, and its community is small but friendly. He proceeded by teaching us about the components of the mobile UI and what’s actually happening under the hood. He wrapped the session up by explaining his work’s performance, past challenges, and future works.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170310165835j:plain

The third topic was ‘Backing Up DynamoDB Tables’ by Bagus. He began by talking about the recent events that made him look into the issue further. One strategy we can use to backup DynamoDB tables is to utilise AWS Data Pipeline. Data Pipeline is a service which allows us to automate the movement and transformation of data. Creating pipelines to backup DynamoDB tables is simple, because we can use templates. Via AWS console, we can easily create a pipeline that exports DynamoDB table to S3 and another pipeline that imports DynamoDB backup data from S3.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170310165841j:plain

The fourth topic was ‘Things I Learned from IT Admins in Taiwan’ by Nakakomi-san. For almost half of last year, he was working in Taiwan. During that time, he noticed some differences between Japan and Taiwan in several aspects, such as employment culture, decision making, and concern of IT admins. He related these differences to HDE’s goal of becoming a world-class IT company. To achieve that goal, we need to think globally. Each country has their own culture, which affects the way the people think, which affects the solution that they need. By knowing more about other countries, we can adjust our solutions to suit their needs.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170310165848j:plain

The fifth topic was ‘Introduction to Video Encoding’ by Michael-san. He began by explaining the terminologies related to video encoding, such as containers, codec, compression, and encoder. He continued by teaching us about compression and re-encoding effect. There’s always a tradeoff between file size and quality. According to Michael-san, the codec used and encoding parameters affects the result a lot. He also answered some frequently-asked questions regarding video encoding. He wrapped the session up by introducing a software he prefers to encode videos, FFmpeg.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170310170003j:plain

The sixth topic was an in-depth explanation of an HDE service by Xudong-san. He began by explaining the feature he was working on and its requirements. There had been a previous implementation of the feature, but Xudong-san was requested to redesign it. The original design utilised EC2, while the redesign was to utilise AWS Lambda. The reason was, unlike EC2 instances, Lambda functions needs no maintenance. Furthermore, Lambda functions can also be cheaper than EC2 instances.

However, utilising Lambda functions also had its own problems. This was mainly because he was utilising Lambda functions for I/O-bound actions. He created a new design to solve this issue. This new design utilised two types of Lambda functions, consumer and controller. Controller functions invokes consumer functions, and consumer functions can also invoke other consumer functions. He also highlighted the limitations of AWS that he needed to consider during his implementation.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170310170009j:plain

The seventh topic was ‘Airport Baggage Handling System’ by Kelvin-san. He is our current Global Internship Program (GIP) participant. Before his internship at HDE, he had had another internship, during which he worked for projects related to baggage tracking system at HKIA. Baggage handling system manages activities such as checking in baggage to unit load devices, transferring baggages to other flights, and baggage claiming. A good baggage handling system is reliable, handles numerous baggages at the same time, minimises transfer time, and is completely automatic.

Apparently, baggage mishandling is one of the most common issues in airports today. Among the usual causes of baggage mishandling are human error and damaged tags. Furthermore, almost half of lost luggage is due to transfer-related incidents. Kelvin-san explained one of the solutions to baggage mishandling, which is automatic RFID baggage tracking system. According to Kelvin-san, RFID has higher successful reading rate compared to barcode. Towards the end of the session, he explained various components of airport baggage handling system by describing their pictures.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170310170015j:plain

The day of the 31st MTS was also the last day of Kelvin-san’s internship. We had a small event for him and gave him some souvenirs. In turn, he shared his impressions of his time working with us. Thank you very much for your contribution, Kelvin-san!

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170313214426j:plain

As usual, we had a party afterwards :)

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170313213926j:plain

30th Monthly Technical Session (MTS) Report

30th Monthly Technical Session (MTS) was held on January 27th. MTS is a knowledge sharing event, in which HDE members present some topics and have QA sessions, both in English.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170214154813j:plain

The moderator of the 30th MTS was Jonas.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170214155034j:plain

The first topic was ‘Introducing Yahoo! Pulsar: a Distributed Pub-Sub Messaging System’ by Okubo-san. Pub-Sub stands for publish-subscribe, a messaging pattern in software architecture. In this pattern, publishers don’t send messages directly to subscribers. According to Okubo-san, communication in pub-sub happens by utilising topics. Publishers send messages of certain topics, and subscribers receives messages of certain topics.

Pulsar is a distributed pub-sub messaging platform which is developed by Yahoo!. They have been using Pulsar since 2015, and recently the platform was made open source. Pulsar offers scalability, low latency, strong ordering and consistency guarantees, cloud service oriented design, and geo replication. Okubo-san continued by explaining Pulsar’s architecture and comparing it to other messaging platforms.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170214155230j:plain

The second topic was a re-explanation of an internal service, by Matsuura-san. This time, the focus was how he solved a particular problem. In this service, there are AWS Lambda functions which access EC2 instances. Initially, Fabric was utilised by the Lambda functions to execute shell commands in the EC2 instances. However, using Fabric caused some problems, such as KeyboardInterrupt or Operation not permitted.

To solve this, he used Paramiko instead of Fabric. Using Paramiko is a bit more complicated than using Fabric though, as he needed to compile it on Amazon Linux, then include it in a Lambda function’s deployment package.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170214155438j:plain

The third topic was an in-depth explanation of an HDE service, by Ogawa-san. He began by explaining one of the backend components of the service. Then, he continued by teaching us how he solved a problem regarding filename encoding of ZIP file format. According to Ogawa-san, we can do this in two ways. The first one is to utilise language encoding flag (general purpose bit 11). The second one is to utilise Info-ZIP’s unicode path extra field.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170214155531j:plain

The fourth topic was an explanation of an HDE service’s new feature, by Iskandar-san. He began by briefly reintroducing the service itself. Then, he immediately proceeded to teach us everything about the new feature, such as its concept, its architecture, its development process, and other technical details. He also talked about the changes the new feature will bring, such as additions to the user interface and new use cases. He had even made a video which explains how the new feature will actually work once it is released.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170214155640j:plain

The fifth topic was about Bitcoin and blockchain), by Kelvin-san. He is our current Global Internship Program (GIP) participant. He began by explaining what Bitcoin is, particularly by comparing it to the existing financial system. Then, he taught us blockchain, a database that serves as Bitcoin’s ledger. Blockchain is a distributed database maintaining a continuously-growing list of ordered records (blocks). Once a block is added to the chain, it cannot be modified anymore. Furthermore, since blockchain is distributed, every node in the network has the same blockchain. According to Kelvin-san, these specifications make blockchain secure.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170214155755j:plain

As usual, we had a party afterwards :)

29th Monthly Technical Session (MTS) Report

29th Monthly Technical Session (MTS) was held on December 16th. MTS is a knowledge sharing event, in which HDE members present some topics and have QA sessions, both in English.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20161219201836j:plain

The moderator of the 29th MTS was Shihan.

The first topic was 'Global Internship Program (GIP) Annual Report 2016' by Yuri-san. She explained all that she had done in the past year, showed how much we had grown compared to the year before, and shared the lessons she learned along the way. She also talked about the future, specifically about the strategies she would like to try in the next year.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20161219203015j:plain

The second topic was 'Play with Favicon' by Shinohara-san. Favicons are websites' icons. We can see it all over our browsers, usually in tabs, bookmarks, address bar, history, etc. Shinohara-san explained how he implemented the Favicon of one of our services. He also showed some examples of dynamic favicons, one of which was a fully-functional Tetris game!

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170110181852j:plain

The third topic was a report of re:Invent 2016 by Arakawa-san and Okubo-san. As you may have already known, re:Invent is Amazon Web Services' global customer and partner conference, which is held annually. Arakawa-san explained in detail the session that impressed him the most, Tuesday Night Live with James Hamilton. He also talked about re:Invent Central, in which technologies developed by companies that sponsored re:Invent are exhibited.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170110185410j:plain

On the other hand, Okubo-san shared about networking, experiences, and learning he had during the event. He told us how he got to exchange lots of business cards. He also showed some pictures of meals, venues, and learning sessions. The session that impressed him the most was How Netflix Achieves Email Delivery at Global Scale with Amazon SES.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170111121408j:plain

The fourth topic was presented by David-san. He was one of our Global Internship Program (GIP) participants. He shared lots of lessons he had learned from his working experience so far. He specifically focused on the project management approaches he had tried before, such as stand up meetings, GitHub issues, and others. For each of those approaches, he explained both its advantages and disadvantages, and what he thought about it.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170111124233j:plain

The fifth topic was 'An Introduction to WebRTC' by Alice-san. She was the other one of our GIP participants. WebRTC is the union of standards, protocols, and APIs which enables real-time communication between browsers. Advantages of WebRTC comes from its security, speed, voice and video engines, and the fact that it is open source and patent-free. She also explained WebRTC protocol stack and browser support.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170111125221j:plain

The day of 29th MTS was also the last day of David-san's and Alice-san's internships. So, we had a small event for them, in which they got some souvenirs and shared their impression of the seven-week internship. Thank you very much for your good work, David-san and Alice-san! We're happy to have you with us.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170111150518j:plain

As usual, we had a party afterwards.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20170111150114j:plain

28th Monthly Technical Session (MTS) Report

28th Monthly Technical Session (MTS) was held on November 18th. MTS is a knowledge sharing event, in which HDE members present some topics and have QA sessions, both in English.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20161128101126j:plain

The moderator of 28th MTS was Bagus.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20161128101348j:plain

The first topic was a workshop of an HDE service, by Hayashi-san. He began by explaining what the service is and the motivation behind its development. So that other members can help test the service, Hayashi-san demonstrated how to install and use the service. He also explained how to uninstall the service. To close the presentation, Hayashi-san asked the audience to contact him if they find some problems in the service or if they have some ideas about improving the service.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20161128102747j:plain

The second topic was a comparison between Amazon Simple Email Service (SES) and an HDE service, by Okubo-san. According to his observation, SES and the HDE service differs in several aspects, which are verifying from addresses, sending emails, moving out of sandbox, handling bounced emails, and suppression list. Okubo-san concluded that SES is a good framework for transactional emails. On the other hand, the HDE service is not a framework, but it's able to send various types of emails.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20161128104330j:plain

The third topic was the logging and monitoring aspect of an HDE Service, by Jeffrey-san. This was a continuation of his presentation in the 25th MTS. Jeffrey-san began by explaining the logging approach that is used in his project. He spent more time explaining monitoring, because there are some issues related to it that he had to resolve. He described each issue and its solutions in detail. Because there was still time, he ended the presentation by explaining an automated task related to monitoring.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20161128115413j:plain

The fourth topic was task automation using Microsoft Azure, by Imaizumi-san. The tasks he intended to automate are the ones related to deploying HDE One services. Imaizumi-san began by explaining the motivation behind implementing this solution. He then showed the system architecture and demonstrated how the solution would work. He ended the presentation by explaining the relationship of his solution with other deployment task automation solutions in HDE.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20161128123123j:plain

The fifth topic was the internals of an HDE service, by Tanabe-san. Because there were lots of technical details to be explained, this presentation was longer than the others. Tanabe-san began by comparing this service with its predecessor. He then introduced the members of the project, and explained what each of the members is working on. He continued by explaining the system architecture and key concepts of the design process. Then, he explained each component of the system in detail. After that, he talked about release, deployment, and monitoring of the service. He ended the presentation by addressing lessons learned and future works.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20161128125123j:plain

The sixth topic was 'Genetics 2.0' by Alice-san. She is one of our current Global Internship Program (GIP) participants. Alice-san has an undergraduate degree in biomedical science and has 4 years worth of work experience in the field of molecular biology. She talked about applications of computer science in genetics. First, there is Cello, with which users can generate DNA sequences that describe logic functions for control of gene expression in bacteria. Second, machine learning is sometimes used in researches, such as to model gene/protein interactions and identify genetic risk factors.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20161128142734j:plain

The last topic was 'Wrap those Naked Variables for Good' by David-san. He is the other one of our current GIP participants. Naked values are values that may sometimes be null. These values are quite troublesome, because functions may not tell that they return such values, they cause Null Pointer Exceptions, and they make codes full of if not null statements. David-san explained a pattern that helps handling this, which is Maybe Box. It tells us that a function might return a value. Just(a) is a box containing a value, while Nothing is an empty box. To handle both cases, we can use map. With this, functions will only be applied to Just(a), never to Nothing.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20161128161023p:plain

As usual, we had a party afterwards.

f:id:bagus-rahman:20161128160631j:plain

DMARCとは

こんにちは。メール配信担当の大久保です。

先日、社内の技術勉強会で、なりすましメールを防ぐための技術 DMARC についてお話させて頂きました。 今回はこの話をまとめてブログ記事にしたいと思います。

DMARC とは

DMARC(Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting & Conformance)は、 送信ドメイン認証技術であるSPFとDKIMをもちいてなりすましメールの判定を行います。 メール受信者がなりすましメールを受信した場合に、これをドメイン所有者に通知する仕組みと、 なりすましメールをどのように取り扱うべきかをドメイン所有者が宣言する仕組みを提供します。

DMARCは主に2つの機能をメール送信者に提供します。

レポート

メール送信者は、メール受信者から2種類のレポートをもらうことができます。

  • Aggregate Reports : メール送信者のドメインから受信したメール数と認証結果のサマリーレポートです。

  • Failure Reports : 送信ドメイン認証が失敗した場合、リアルタイムに報告されます。 送信IPや、メッセージIDなど認証に失敗したメールを調査するために必要な情報が含まれます。

ポリシー

メール送信者は、SPFとDKIMを用いて自身が送信したメールをメール受信者に認証してもらいます。 認証に失敗した場合、メールをどのように取り扱ってほしいかを3つのポリシーのいずれかで宣言することができます。

  • none : 何もしない。

  • quarantine : 隔離する(迷惑メールフォルダに入れる)。

  • reject : 受信しない(SMTPエラーとする)。

どのように導入するのか

企業ドメインでは複数のシステムからメールを送信していることが考えられ、 送信ドメイン認証に未対応のシステムがあったり、 DKIMキーやSPFが適切に公開されていないなどを理由とした認証エラーが発生するリスクがあります。

このようなリスクを回避し、安全にDMARCを導入するために、以下の手順が推奨されています。

  1. まず最初にDKIMとSPFを導入します。

  2. Gmail や Yahoo メールなどでメールを受信して認証が成功することを確認します。

  3. ポリシーを"none"として、DMARCレコードを公開し、Aggregate Reports を受信します。

  4. Aggregate Reports を分析して全てのメール送信先ドメインの認証結果を確認します。

  5. DKIMとSPFの運用が適切であることが確認できたら、DMARCポリシーを"none"から"quarantine", "reject"へ変更します。

どのようなメリットがあるのか

米国では、2007年に PayPal が DMARC を導入し、なりすましメールを激減させることができたというレポートがあります。

DMARCのゴールは、"reject"を宣言してなりすましメールをユーザーのメールボックスに届けないことですが、 Aggregate Reports を受信し、企業ドメインに対する送信ドメイン認証の対応状況を分析するなど、 メールの到達性を改善するための有効なツールとして利用できるかと思います。

また、Failure Reports を受信することで、 認証エラーの発生を検知し、原因の調査と改善を図るなど送信ドメイン認証の運用を適切に維持できると考えます。

おわりに

DMARCを導入するためには、まず送信ドメイン認証(SPF,DKIM)を導入する必要があります。 私どもが提供するメール配信サービス Customers Mail Cloud は、 既存のメールサーバーにメールリレーの設定をするだけで利用することができ、DKIMとSPFに対応することができます。

また、DMARC導入に関するご相談も承っております。 興味がありましたら問い合わせフォームよりお気軽にご相談ください。

27th Monthly Technical Session (MTS) Report

27th Monthly Technical Session (MTS) was held on October 21st. MTS is a knowledge sharing event, in which HDE members present some topics and have a QA session in English.

The moderator of 27th MTS was Hayashi-san. f:id:bagus-rahman:20161026204016j:plain

The first topic was 'Report of CX Summit in Singapore' by Abiko-san. He began by explaining what customer success is and how to measure it. One of customer success measurements is Net Promoter Score (NPS). To put it simply, NPS determines how likely it is for customers to recommend a product or service to others. Abiko-san had joined the summit to learn about how to raise our NPS. f:id:bagus-rahman:20161026204159j:plain

The second topic was 'Brief Introduction of DMARC reports' by Okubo-san. This topic was the continuation of 'Brief Introduction of DMARC', that Okubo-san had presented on the 26th MTS. As a review, DMARC is an email authentication protocol. This time, Okubo-san mainly explained DMARC's aggregate and forensic reports. Aggregate reports describe which emails are authenticated, and which are not. Forensic reports describe emails that doesn't pass the authentication, in finer detail. Both are useful information in maintaining the stability of email service. f:id:bagus-rahman:20161026210019j:plain

The third topic was 'Introduction to Azure AD Connect' by Sumi-san. He focused on explaining how to install Azure AD Connect and how to synchronise data from Active Directory Domain Service to Azure AD. There are similar tools to Azure AD Connect, such as Azure Active Directory Sync (DirSync) and Azure AD Sync. However, these tools will be deprecated soon, on April 13th, 2017. This is one of the reasons why this topic is important. f:id:bagus-rahman:20161026210918j:plain

The fourth topic was presented by Doi-san. This was the third special topic, which had started since the 25th MTS. These topics are a way for us to share knowledge about internal projects. Because of their special nature, these topics are presented in 25 minutes, almost twice as much time as the other topics. This time, Doi-san explained the purpose, architecture, monitoring, deployment, and future works of the project he's working on. f:id:bagus-rahman:20161026211014j:plain

The last topic was 'Wi-Fi Protected Setup' by Michael-san. He is our current Global Internship Program (GIP) participant. This topic is actually a part of his bachelor's thesis. Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) makes connecting to a Wi-Fi access point easier, because users don't need to know its password. Michael-san explained some WPS approaches, which are push-button and PIN. Push-button's weakness is once someone is able to physically access the access point, then they can extract its password. PIN's weakness is it can be guessed using a brute force approach. To solve this, PIN attempt should be limited. f:id:bagus-rahman:20161026211158j:plain

As usual, we had a party afterwards. f:id:bagus-rahman:20161027125039j:plain

第26回 Monthly Technical Session (MTS) レポート

勉強会 MTS

9/16に第26回 Monthly Technical Session (MTS)が行われました。 MTSは、主に技術的な興味関心、また現在行っていることから得られた知見を共有するための取り組みで、司会進行から質疑応答まで全編通して英語で行われる社内勉強会です。

今回の司会はKevinさんでした。

f:id:doi-t:20160916175215j:plain

トップバッッターは古川さん、複数のAWS lamdbaを管理するために選定したツールと、解決し切れなかった現状の課題を共有してくれました。lamvery, apex, Serverless Framework, fluctなど様々ある中、プロジェクトでは10近くあるAWS lambdaをデプロイ先をstagingとproductionとで切り替えながら管理する必要があるため、今回はapexを採用したことを紹介してくれました。しかし、terraformで管理している別のAWSリソースとapexで管理しているAWS lambda間のインテグレーションについては上手く解決できたわけではなく、まだまだ解決策を模索中です。

f:id:doi-t:20160916170858j:plain

2番手の大久保さんには、SPFやDKIMを利用して送信ドメイン認証を行うことができるDMARCプロトコルの紹介をしていただきました。弊社製品のCustomers Mail Cloudが提供する機能の一部である送信者認証も、このプロトコルを基に提供されており、正しく送信者認証を設定するにはDKIM設定を慎重にやる必要があります。発表では、認証の設定が正しいか一目でわかるように、DMARCのレポートを可視化する機能の実装を今後の展望として話してくれました。

f:id:doi-t:20160916172252j:plain

3番手は、先月末にマレーシアで行われたPyCon MY 2016に参加してきたshihanさんが、カンファレンスのレポートをしてくれました。今回、HDEはゴールドスポンサーシップとしてPyCon MY 2016に協賛しました。また、弊社からjonasさんがスピーカーとして登壇したことや、津田さんが来年に行われるPyCon APAC 2017 in Kuala LumpurについてLTを行ったこと、HDEのブースでのGIPインターン案内の様子などを、写真と共にレポートとしてくれました。

f:id:doi-t:20160916172837j:plain

4番手は、ゲストスピーカーとして参加していただいた東さんにinfragisticsを紹介していただきました。infragisticsでは、UI/UXの開発改善を支援するツールやモックアップテスト、シナリオベースのユーザビリティテストなどを手軽に実現するソリューションを提供しています。今回は、ご縁があり、MTSでは珍しく社外からのゲスト枠として発表いただき、After-Partyにも参加していただきました。ありがとうございました。

f:id:doi-t:20160916173945j:plain

5番手のBagusさんには、前回に引き続き、25分枠でプロジェクトの全体像を共有する試みの第2弾として、次期リリースシステムの自動化について共有してもらいました。これまでのリリースシステム自動化は、既存のjenkins jobにjenkins jobを継ぎ足す形でほとんどのリリース作業を自動化することに成功しましたが、システムメンテナンスのコスト、古いjenkins用EC2インスタンスの管理、リリーススピードなど問題を抱えています。次期システムでは、各コンポーネントをAWS lambda+DynamoDB+API Gatewayの構成に置き換えることで、現行システムが抱える問題の解決とさらなる自動化を目指します。

f:id:doi-t:20160916182630j:plain

6番手の篠原さんには、プロジェクトでモバイルUIの開発に用いているRiot.jsの紹介をしていただきました。 WebUIに用いているAngularJSが、複雑な要件に耐える多機能なフレームワークであるのに対して、Riot.jsの強みとして、軽量、高い可読性、レンダリングのスピード、モバイルUIに対して必要十分な機能を持っている点を挙げて両者の違いを紹介していただきました。Q&Aでは、JavaScriptフレームワークの選定基準について白熱した議論が繰り広げられました。

f:id:doi-t:20160916183624j:plain

ラストは現在GIPインターン中のAkiraさん、P2Pベースの分散ファイルシステムであるIPFS (the InterPlanetary File System)の紹介をしていただきました。一度ファイルをアップロードすると全世界に公開されて、二度と消せないこの豪快なシステムは、READMEで自ら It is crazy. と認めています。Q&Aでも、悪意のある人が機密情報をアップロードしたらどうなるんだと言った議論が盛り上がりました。

f:id:doi-t:20160916185639j:plain

終わった後はAfter-Party!! 今回は特に参加者が多い回となりました。また、これが今期最後のMTSでした。来期以降も、様々なトピックを持ち寄って毎月開催を予定しています。

f:id:doi-t:20160916200723j:plain